To install or not to install? Following the IMO 2020 global low sulphur cap for marine fuel effective since 1 January 2020, many shipowners are still evaluating their positioning on whether to install scrubbers or not.
Some shipping companies have already made an initial assessment, have weighed the risks and have taken the decision not to install scrubbers just yet, advocating a “wait and see” approach in an effort to avoid speculation of bunker spreads. They also keep the option (put/call) to install a scrubber later in the future, in case the spreads between HSFO and LSFO / ULSFO increase significantly. On the other hand, there is a large number of shipowners (by January 2020 approximately 11% of the global fleet by tonnage and 4.5% by vessel count*) who have already decided to invest in scrubbers installation (the amounts range between $1,5m – $5m depending on the type of vessel) in order to avoid the uncertainty related to the future supply and prices of LSFO /ULSFO. One of the main drivers behind such investment decisions, is the assumption that these vessels will be more employable in the future as charterers are also being driven by their boards and corporate responsibility initiatives to employ more “green” friendly vessels. Moreover, the vessel owners can also take advantage (i.e. higher rates, lower fuel cost) of scrubber investment programs in a rising market.
Investing in scrubbers is one of the most significant one-off capital improvements having an important impact on the shipping industry over the last decade. The cost of the scrubbers is either being funded by the owners of the vessels, the charterer (lessee) or a combination of both. Where the charterers fully or partially fund the cost of scrubbers, this is done through either an upfront payment or through increased hire charter rates during the lease term.
For those shipping companies that have taken the decision to install scrubbers on their vessels, PwC has identified four main accounting considerations to be taken into account.
1- Capitalization of scrubbers
n general, an expenditure that adds to the productive capacity or improves the efficiency of an existing asset can be considered a capital item. Some key benefits that vessels with scrubbers are expected to generate in the future include:
- Demand higher charter rates;
- Incur lower fuel costs;
- Increase corporate responsibility – more employable vessels, take advantage of the rising market;
- Reduce environmental footprint;
- Maintain their current speed;
- Possibly a reduction in interest rates (finance costs), as more banks are turning to “green lending” or are now incorporating reduction in interest rates for environmentally friendly assets
On the other hand, vessels without scrubbers may demand lower charter rates, incur higher fuel costs and potentially slow down their speed
Overall, taking into consideration that scrubbers improve the efficiency of the vessel, a view can be taken that the costs related to scrubber installation qualify for capitalization.
2- Useful life of the scrubber
The useful life of an asset is defined as the period over which the asset is expected to contribute directly or indirectly to future cash flows, the assessment of which can require a significant amount of judgment dependent on a number of factors.
Based on inquiries with technical departments of shipping companies, it is rather difficult to say that there is a certain useful life for a scrubber. Given that there are no regulations or guidelines yet on scrubbers’ lifecycle and replacement, we can assume that a scrubber with proper maintenance can contribute to the operation of the vessel over the remaining useful life of the asset.
3- Who is the owner of the asset?
It is generally expected that the owner of the vessel will be the owner of the scrubber as it would be difficult for a charterer to remove a scrubber after the completion of a charter – in which case, probably neither of the two parties would undertake the incremental cost. It is also highly likely that the scrubber will be used by subsequent charterers, regardless of whether the installation was funded by the vessel owner or reimbursed by the charterer. In both cases, the increase in the daily hire rate or the one-time payment from the charterer could be considered as an additional revenue for the owner as it relates to the premium that the charterer is willing to pay in order to benefit from the lower bunker expense. Any potential upfront reimbursements from the charterer for the scrubber could be deferred and amortized over the lease term.
4- Impairment considerations
To the extent scrubbers will be fitted, there is a need to determine if the cash flow projections used in the long-lived asset impairment tests will need to include an estimate of the relevant outflow (i.e. scrubber costs and future maintenance costs). The effect of any additional operating expenses associated with the scrubber maintenance on the projected cash flows should also be considered.
Currently, vessels predominantly utilize HSFO, and the installation of scrubbers would allow the vessels to continue to utilize this fuel. The ability to consume specific types of fuel could become a new service potential, with vessels’ scrubber installation probably being a cash outflow able to maintain this new service.
Charterers may fund or partially fund the installation of a scrubber through either a one-time payment or an amended charter rate including a potential premium. For cases where one-time payment is received from the charterer, the impairment assessment may not include this payment or the related scrubber cost and accordingly keep the original charter rate until the scrubber is installed. With this approach projected revenue is not overstated and the expense will be included upon installation, to offset the additional charter hire. Ultimately, the impact to the cash flows should be nil or minimal when the charterer is funding or partially funding the cost of the scrubber, respectively.
The above-mentioned accounting considerations include a high level of judgement. Therefore, it is crucial that management assesses the accounting treatment on a case by case basis, taking into consideration its specific characteristics and ensuring that the proper disclosures are made.
PwC’s professionals have insight into accounting for scrubbers both under US GAAP and IFRS. Contact us @Joseph Kapetanios, Audit Manager, Shipping Practice – or @Santos Equitz, Shipping Industry Leader –
Article Source: PwC, Article by Mr. Joseph Kapetanios, Arranged on Behalf of
Hellenic Shipping News Worldwide (www.hellenicshippingnews.com)
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